Multiple risks and threats exist from climate change. The greatest threat is that it can escalate the impacts of many problems the world is facing due to unsustainable development. With its growing population, Pakistan is already a water scarce country, and climate change may further reduce the water availability. A key reason is Pakistan’s reliance of its source of freshwater supply for use in its agro based economy.
Water originates from rainfall and melted snow in the mountainous regions of Pakistan. The natural process of water flows from the mountainous to the coastal region replenishing the ground water supplies of Pakistan as well as serving the agricultural regions flowing out to the sea at the Kotri barrage. If the water quality, quantity or flow rate is affected in anyway upstream it may have an impact on freshwater outputs downstream.
The impact of climate change coupled with unplanned development and deforestation could prove to be disastrous for Pakistan. Forest cover has decreased dramatically in the northern regions of the country. This has been followed by soil degradation and in many instances a barren rocky landscape has been left behind. The natural process of water flows have been disrupted in the watersheds and could be further aggravated with the changing weather patterns associated with climate change.
To mitigate the impacts of climate change, Pakistan’s National Climate Change Strategy calls to “promote integrated watershed management including ecological conservation practices in uphill watersheds”. Integrated watershed management recognizes the balances between ecosystem, community and economic health as well as the needs of the diverse stakeholders on land and water.
The advantages for applying integrated water shed management are multifold. It can provide a framework for identifying the roots of many of the problems specific to the locations. The reasons for deforestation could have been livelihood generation or fuel for heating and cooking. It can also determine a mode for collective action on a number of fronts: identifying the conservation measures to be undertaken; awareness raising and capacity building of the local communities; policing and governance and promoting alternate practices.
WWF-P initiated an integrated watershed management (IWM)
project in Ayubia National Park in 2008 with
Previously, unsustainable land management practices had led
to deforestation, water shortage and flash floods in the region. The
Project works have reinstated groundwater recharge through reforestation and soil restoration. Through increasing the vegetation cover and various land rehabilitation activities the project has been calculated to have recharged 782 million liters of rainwater to the groundwater and has reduced the loss of top soil by stabilizing 1,381.74 m3 of sediments. More than 140,000 indigenous trees have been planted, inclusive of 15,000 fruit trees. The afforestation campaign has supported conservation of 130 hectares of land. In line with this, local communities have been granted more than 500 fuel efficient stoves that use solar power, and this was a well-devised strategy to create awareness among the locals for a sense of shared value creation and nature's cycle; energy conservation. on student level, nature clubs have been formulated in 50 schools, where teachers and students are motivated to conduct monthly campaigns for nature preservation and animal rights.
An integrated approach in watershed management requires a
multi stakeholder strategy to management. A vast group of stakeholders are seen
to work together in this project: The
Coca Cola Foundation;
The back bone of the project is based on community
empowerment. This has been done by raising awareness and community
mobilization. The project organizes
forums and meetings where communities meet to discuss their issues. Community
organizations have been formed to carry out many of the project interventions.
The village and women organizations formed have grown to have a heightened sense
of ownership about the project. In
addressing the reasons for deforestation, many community issues have also been
understood and linkages formed between the communities, government bodies and
Of particular interest is the role of women in the project. The project has learned from the day to day activities of women to involve them. Women have traditionally been involved in subsistence farming and fetching water and firewood for cooking. Rainwater harvesting as well as the installation of pipelines and fuel efficient stoves have improved living standards by reducing the burden on women. In the course of the years of the project, the women organizations formed have been trained and now assist in providing training and awareness to women for kitchen gardening, running nurseries for tree saplings and rearing poultry – which are all a source of alternate livelihood.
The Ayubia National Park attracts a lot of visitors. Tourists leave behind waste which if left uncollected - is not only harmful to health and the environment, but it also takes away the beauty and value as a tourist spot. A recently added goal to the project has been the development of a “Solid Waste Management Plan” with the Galliat Development Authority. Waste is now being collected in bins and transported to the solid waste disposal site in Abbotabad. Other goals for improving health include the protection of streams being used as drinking water and instilling general sanitation practices.
Mr. Naqi has strong faith in this partnership and project
achievements, “This project is a success story for WWF-Pakistan, one which we
often quote as an example of a field based initiative which has influenced
other stakeholders. I strongly believe that the commitment of
Rizwan Ullah Khan, General Manager,
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